No. 29  DEC. 2010

≪ All Articles ≫
<Feature-1> Compressor Technology
1 Technology for Improving Reliability of Oil-flooded Screw Compressors
Several issues exist with large oil-flooded screw compressors used for high-pressure. The large force, acting on their rotors, induces impact vibration between the male and female rotors, causing a large force acting on their bearings. In addition, the compressed gas directly contacts the lubricant, decreasing the oil viscosity. The present paper introduces new technologies, developed to resolve these issues.
7 High-pressure 100 barG Oil-flooded Screw Compressor
Yasushi AMANO 
Kobe Steel has developed a series of oil-flooded screw compressors for high-pressure. The company's original rotor technology, along with larger bearings and special mechanical seals, has enabled discharge pressures up to 100 barG. The compressors, with their high performance and reliability, are suitable for fuel gas boosting and, in particular, for high-efficiency gas turbines. They are finding an increasing number of applications, such as the desulfurization of fuels, and further increases are anticipated.
12 World's Largest Capacity Oil-free Screw Compressor, MODEL KS80
Shugo TAKAKI, Yoshikazu OE 
Large capacity oil-free screw compressors are mainly used in petrochemical plants such as styrene monomer and linear alkyl benzene plants, where suction and discharge pressures are relatively low and a large capacity is needed. Recently, these plants have tended to become larger and the capacity required of the compressor has also tended to increase. To satisfy such a market needs Kobe Steel has developed the world's largest capacity oil-free screw compressor, MODEL KS80, using the design technology and manufacturing technique of the large screw compressor. In this paper, the design concepts and features of MODEL KS80 are introduced.
16 Micro Steam Energy Generator
Takayoshi MATSUI 
Small steam plants are commonly found in various industries. Saving energy in such a plant is difficult, because the steam may have changes in flow, a small volume, or low-pressure. To resolve the issue, Kobe Steel has developed a series of small screw generators, called "micro steam energy generators." These generators enable the effective use of steam in small plants, saving more energy and reducing CO2 emissions. They have an improved power output in the range between 132kW and 160kW. Two types of these generators are available: one is for a large pressure difference and the other is for a small pressure difference. The generators improve the efficiency by 58 to 74% compared with 132 to 160kW class steam turbines. This paper reports the test results for the newly developed generators.
23 High Performance Large Class Oil-free Screw Compressor
Kiyonori IZUTANI 
High-performance, energy-saving equipment is much needed to address the growing concern for the environment. To meet such needs, Kobe Steel has developed high-performance, large class, oil-free screw compressors, the Emeraude-ALE series. This paper introduces the newly developed compressors, which combine the features of high efficiency, economic performance and high reliability
28 Inverter-motor Driven, Water-injected, Oil-free Screw Air Compressor, EmerauDe-Aqua® Series
Junichiro TOTSUKA, Toru NOGUCHI 
Kobe Steel has developed a series, EmerauDe-Aqua, of oil-free screw air compressors which use water injected during compression for sealing and cooling their parts. Each compressor employs Kobe Steel's original noncontact screw rotors, driven by an interior permanent magnet (IPM) high-speed motor controlled by an inverter. The motor is directly connected with the screw rotors, to assure high performance for a wide range of flow volume.
32 Gas Energy Recovery Radial Turbine Generator System
Gas energy recovery systems generate power from the pressure difference of gas. The systems are eco-friendly with reduced CO2 emissions. An increasing number of them are being used around the world, Kobe Steel's radial turbines playing a key role. This paper introduces the energy recovery system based on the company's unique turbine technology. Also included are the company's activities aimed at the future expansion.
37 Cycle Gas Compressor for Polyolefin, DH series
Hiroaki TANAKA 
To meet the growing demands for polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), many plants have been and are being built. In addition, plant capacities are being increased year by year to achieve high plant performance. Kobe steel has developed and improved compressors to meet their needs. This paper reports on a cycle gas compressor, one of the most important apparatuses for polyolefin plants, focusing on its special features and the outlook for the future.
42 Integrally Geared Centrifugal Compressors for High-pressure Process Gas Services
Keiichi SAEKI, Hiroki SANARI, Yoshitaka BABA, Mitsuhiko ITO,  
Toshihisa SHIBATA, Dr. Michiya KUROHASHI 
An integrally geared centrifugal compressor, the High Pressure SUPER TURBO, has been developed for high pressure process gas services. The compressor has a modified design to ensure maximum stability of the rotor for high pressure application, and the analysis results met the requirements of the API standards. A full load running test was performed over 80Bar discharge pressure, which confirmed sufficient rotor stability by verifying low rotor vibration and low temperature rise in the bearing pads. This result has expanded the high pressure application coverage of integrally geared centrifugal compressors. The compressors could be applied to the main market of process gas services.
<Feature-2> New Iron and Coal
47 Overview of Market for Direct Reduced Iron
Akihiro SAWADA, Takaaki MIYAMOTO 
Unlike the blast furnace process, which utilizes coking coal, the direct reduction process utilizes natural gas and non-coking coal as a reductant. The worldwide production of direct reduced iron (DRI) has rapidly increased. This paper outlines the history and prospects of the market for direct reduced iron.
50 MIDREX® Processes
Masaaki ATSUSHI, Hiroshi UEMURA, Takashi SAKAGUCHI 
Since 1978, when a plant based on the MIDREX process was built in Qatar for producing direct reduced iron, Kobe Steel and MIDREX Technologies, Inc., have collaborated to make many technical improvements in the process. The largest MIDREX module, having an annual production capacity of 1.8 million tones, began operation in 2007. The MIDREX module, together with a melt shop, now has a production capacity comparable to that of a blast furnace. This paper presents an overview of the history of the technical developments in these processes, as well as the latest developments in this field.
58 KOBELCO Pelletizing Process
Shinichi YAMAGUCHI, Takeshi FUJII, Norihito YAMAMOTO,  
Tsutomu NOMURA 
Kobe Steel's history of pelletizing plants began when the company built a plant at its Kobe Works in 1966. This paper introduces the history of pelletizing plants, including process outlines and the latest achievements in the construction of plants overseas. In the past, plant owners had focused mainly on the quality of the product pellets and plant equipment, as well as the cost of the plants. Lately, however, the environmental aspects of plant operation have also been attracting more attention. Kobe Steel, with its experience in design, construction and operation, is contributing to the further improvement and development of pelletizing plants that meet all the requirements.
69 Prospects for Coal-based Direct Reduction Process
Haruyasu MICHISHITA, Hidetoshi TANAKA 
Kobe Steel has developed coal-based direct reduction (DR) technologies, the FASTMET, FASTMELT and ITmk3 processes, which reduce carbon composite agglomerates (pellets or briquettes) on the hearth of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF). This paper outlines the features of each process, status of technical development and commercialization. Also described is the contribution of these technologies to environmental compatibility and the security of raw materials, which are becoming critical issues for the steel industry worldwide.
77 ITmk3® Process
Shoichi KIKUCHI, Shuzo ITO, Dr. Isao KOBAYASHI, Osamu TSUGE,  
The ITmk3 process, which produces high-quality iron (ITmk3 iron nuggets) from ore fines and coal fines, was developed based on a unique concept of iron ore and carbon composite technology. The development started in 1996, followed by test operations at a pilot plant and large-scale pilot plant. The first commercial plant was constructed in the U.S. and has started producing iron nuggets. This article outlines the history of the development, the features of the process, the product, and the future outlook.
85 Features of FASTMET® Process
Hirofumi TSUTSUMI, Shohei YOSHIDA, Masahiko TETSUMOTO 
Over the past 10 years, Kobe Steel and its US subsidiary company, MIDREX Technologies, Inc., have been developing the FASTMET process. This process enables the conversion of metallic oxides from either steel mill waste or iron ore fines, into metallized iron in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) using solid carbon sources, such as coal, as the reductant. Since 2000, the current commercial operations have enabled steelmakers to deal with metallic waste problems. In 2009, Kobe Steel filled order for two new FASTMET plants, each with 190,000 tonnes/h capacity. One of these is the third plant for Nippon Steel Hirohata Works with the first FASTMET-HBI process, and the other is the first plant for JFE Fukuyama Works, which produces DRI as a supplemental source for blast furnaces.
93 Demonstration of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC®) Process by 600 tonnes/day Plant Processes
Shigeru KINOSHITA, Dr. Seiichi YAMAMOTO, Tetsuya DEGUCHI,  
Utilization of low rank coal has been limited so far, due to its high moisture content, low calorific value and spontaneous combustibility. In Indonesia, more than half of the minable coal is low rank coal such as lignite or brown coal. Some lignite in Indonesia has the feature of low sulfur and low ash content. Therefore, it can be turned into an attractive fuel coal if it is upgraded using an economical dewatering method. Kobe Steel has been developing upgraded brown coal (UBC) technology since the early 1990s. Currently, a UBC demonstration plant project is underway in Indonesia, and operation of the plant has already commenced.

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